Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens

Monarchs of the Renaissance
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The executioner asked her forgiveness, which she granted him, pleading: Jane then failed to find the block with her hands, and cried, "What shall I do? With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted by Luke: No memorial stone was erected at their grave. She died in During and in the aftermath of the Marian persecutions , Jane became viewed as a Protestant martyr for centuries, featuring prominently in the several editions of the Book of Martyrs Actes and Monuments of these Latter and Perillous Dayes by John Foxe.

The tale of Lady Jane grew to legendary proportions in popular culture, producing romantic biographies, novels, plays, paintings, and films, one of which was the production Lady Jane , starring Helena Bonham Carter. Jane Grey is the only English monarch in the last years though whether her short reign was legitimate is disputed of whom no proven contemporary portrait survives. Painted 40 to 50 years after Jane's death, the " Streatham portrait " so called after the area of London in which it resided for decades depicts a young woman dressed in a red gown, adorned with jewels and holding a prayer book.

David Starkey is sceptical, "It's an appallingly bad picture and there's absolutely no reason to suppose it's got anything to do with Lady Jane Grey". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jane Grey disambiguation. The Streatham portrait , discovered at the beginning of the 21st century and believed to be a copy of a contemporaneous portrait of Lady Jane Grey [1].

Cultural depictions of Lady Jane Grey. This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Lady Jane Grey John Grey of Groby [58] 8.

Lady Jane Grey

Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset [58] Elizabeth Woodville [58] 4. Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset [56] William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington [58] 9. Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington [58] Lady Katherine Neville [58] 2. Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk Sir Robert Wotton [58] 5.

Margaret Wotton [56] Henry Belknap [61] Anne Belknap [58] 1. Lady Jane Grey Sir William Brandon [59] Elizabeth Wingfield [59] 6. Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk [57] Henry Bruyn [60] Elizabeth Bruyn [60] Elizabeth Darcy [60] 3. Lady Frances Brandon Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond [60] Henry VII of England [58] Lady Margaret Beaufort [60] 7. Mary Tudor [57] Edward IV of England [58] Elizabeth of York [58] Retrieved 11 May National Portrait Gallery Publications.

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Pegasus Books — via Google Books. In Nichols, John Gough.

The History of England. Retrieved 24 November Or just an 'appallingly bad picture'? Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 11 February The Routledge Companion to the Tudor Age. Retrieved 7 July Burke's Peerage Genealogical Books Ltd. A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from British monarchs after the Acts of Union Retrieved from " https: Lady Jane Grey House of Tudor Women of the Tudor period s births deaths 16th-century women rulers 16th-century English women 16th-century English monarchs 16th-century Irish monarchs Burials at St.

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Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 10 December , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The marriage unified the warring houses and gave his children a strong claim to the throne. The unification of the houses of York and Lancaster by this marriage is symbolised by the heraldic emblem of the Tudor rose , a combination of the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.

It also ended future discussion as to whether the descendants of the fourth son of Edward III, Edmund, Duke of York , through marriage to Philippa, heiress of the second son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence , had a superior or inferior claim to those of the third son John of Gaunt , who had held the throne for three generations. In addition, Henry had Parliament repeal Titulus Regius , the statute that declared Edward IV's marriage invalid and his children illegitimate, thus legitimising his wife. Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own.

Alison Weir , however, points out that the Rennes ceremony, two years earlier, was possible only if Henry and his supporters were certain that the Princes were already dead. Henry secured his crown principally by dividing and undermining the power of the nobility, especially through the aggressive use of bonds and recognisances to secure loyalty.

41 Facts About the 41 Kings and Queens Since | Mental Floss

He also enacted laws against livery and maintenance , the great lords' practice of having large numbers of "retainers" who wore their lord's badge or uniform and formed a potential private army. While he was still in Leicester, after the battle of Bosworth Field, Henry was already taking precautions to prevent any rebellions against his reign.

However, Henry was threatened by several active rebellions over the next few years. The first was the rebellion of the Stafford brothers and Viscount Lovell of , which collapsed without fighting. In , Yorkists led by Lincoln rebelled in support of Lambert Simnel , a boy who was claimed to be the Earl of Warwick , [32] son of Edward IV's brother Clarence who had last been seen as a prisoner in the Tower. The rebellion began in Ireland , where the traditionally Yorkist nobility, headed by the powerful Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare , proclaimed Simnel King and provided troops for his invasion of England.

The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke. Henry showed remarkable clemency to the surviving rebels: In , a young Fleming , Perkin Warbeck , appeared and claimed to be Richard , the younger of the "Princes in the Tower". In Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured and executed. In , Henry had the Earl of Warwick executed. However, he spared Warwick's elder sister Margaret. Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes, and he was largely successful.

However, such a level of paranoia persisted that anyone John de la Pole, Earl of Richmond, [35] for example with blood ties to the Plantagenets was suspected of coveting the throne. Story's register still exists and, according to the 19th-century historian W. Stephens, "affords some illustrations of the avaricious and parsimonious character of the king".

It seems that the king was skillful at extracting money from his subjects on many pretexts, including that of war with France or war with Scotland. The money so extracted added to the king's personal fortune rather than the stated purpose. Unlike his predecessors, Henry VII came to the throne without personal experience in estate management or financial administration. Henry VII introduced stability to the financial administration of England by keeping the same financial advisors throughout his reign. For instance, other than the first few months of the reign, Lord Dynham and Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey were the only two office holders in the position of Lord High Treasurer of England throughout his reign.

Henry VII improved tax collection within the realm by introducing ruthlessly efficient mechanisms of taxation.

Henry VII of England

He was supported in this effort by his chancellor, Archbishop John Morton , whose " Morton's Fork " was a catch method of ensuring that nobles paid increased taxes. Morton's Fork may actually have been invented by another of Henry's supporters, Richard Foxe. Those nobles who spent little must have saved much and, thus, they could afford the increased taxes; on the other hand, those nobles who spent much obviously had the means to pay the increased taxes.

He established the pound avoirdupois as a standard of weight; it became part of the Imperial [42] and customary systems of units. Henry VII's policy was both to maintain peace and to create economic prosperity. Up to a point, he succeeded. He was not a military man and had no interest in trying to regain French territories lost during the reigns of his predecessors; he was therefore ready to conclude a treaty with France at Etaples that brought money into the coffers of England, and ensured the French would not support pretenders to the English throne, such as Perkin Warbeck.

However, this treaty came at a slight price, as Henry mounted a minor invasion of Brittany in November Henry decided to keep Brittany out of French hands, signed an alliance with Spain to that end, and sent 6, troops to France. However, as France was becoming more concerned with the Italian Wars, the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples. Henry had been under the financial and physical protection of the French throne or its vassals for most of his life, prior to his ascending the throne of England.

To strengthen his position, however, he subsidised shipbuilding, so strengthening the navy he commissioned Europe's first ever — and the world's oldest surviving — dry dock at Portsmouth in and improving trading opportunities. Henry VII was one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly united Spanish kingdom and concluded the Treaty of Medina del Campo , by which his son, Arthur Tudor , was married to Catherine of Aragon. Though this was not achieved during his reign, the marriage eventually led to the union of the English and Scottish crowns under Margaret's great-grandson, James VI and I following the death of Henry's granddaughter Elizabeth I.

Henry VII was much enriched by trading alum , which was used in the wool and cloth trades for use as a chemical dye fixative when dyeing fabrics. With the English economy heavily invested in wool production, Henry VII became involved in the alum trade in With the assistance of the Italian merchant-banker, Lodovico della Fava and the Italian banker, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Henry VII became deeply involved in the trade by licensing ships, obtaining alum from the Ottoman Empire , and selling it to the Low Countries and in England.

Henry's most successful diplomatic achievement as regards the economy was the Magnus Intercursus "great agreement" of In , Henry embargoed trade mainly in wool with the Netherlands as retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy's support of Perkin Warbeck. The Merchant Adventurers , the company which enjoyed the monopoly of the Flemish wool trade, relocated from Antwerp to Calais.

At the same time, Flemish merchants were ejected from England. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry. Both parties realised they were mutually disadvantaged by the reduction in commerce. Its restoration by the Magnus Intercursus was very much to England's benefit in removing taxation for English merchants and significantly increasing England's wealth. Philip had been shipwrecked on the English coast, and while Henry's guest, was bullied into an agreement so favourable to England at the expense of the Netherlands that it was dubbed the Malus Intercursus "evil agreement".

Philip died shortly after the negotiations. Henry's principal problem was to restore royal authority in a realm recovering from the Wars of the Roses. There were too many powerful noblemen and, as a consequence of the system of so-called bastard feudalism , each had what amounted to private armies of indentured retainers mercenaries masquerading as servants. He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him. For instance, the Stanley family had control of Lancashire and Cheshire, upholding the peace on the condition that they stayed within the law.

In other cases, he brought his over-powerful subjects to heel by decree. He passed laws against "livery" the upper classes' flaunting of their adherents by giving them badges and emblems and "maintenance" the keeping of too many male "servants". These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats.

However, his principal weapon was the Court of Star Chamber. This revived an earlier practice of using a small and trusted group of the Privy Council as a personal or Prerogative Court, able to cut through the cumbersome legal system and act swiftly. Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were thus dealt with. They were appointed for every shire and served for a year at a time. Their chief task was to see that the laws of the country were obeyed in their area.

Their powers and numbers steadily increased during the time of the Tudors, never more so than under Henry's reign. All Acts of Parliament were overseen by the Justices of the Peace. For example, Justices of the Peace could replace suspect jurors in accordance with the act preventing the corruption of juries.

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They were also in charge of various administrative duties, such as the checking of weights and measures. They were unpaid, which, in comparison with modern standards, meant a lesser tax bill to pay for a police force. Local gentry saw the office as one of local influence and prestige and were therefore willing to serve. Overall, this was a successful area of policy for Henry, both in terms of efficiency and as a method of reducing the corruption endemic within the nobility of the Middle Ages. In , Henry VII's first son and heir apparent, Arthur, Prince of Wales , died suddenly at Ludlow Castle , very likely from a viral respiratory illness known at the time as the " English sweating sickness ".

The King, normally a reserved man who rarely showed much emotion in public unless angry, surprised his courtiers by his intense grief and sobbing at his son's death, while his concern for the Queen is evidence that the marriage was a happy one, as is his reaction to the Queen's death the following year, when he shut himself away for several days, refusing to speak to anyone. Henry VII wanted to maintain the Spanish alliance. He therefore arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow Catherine, a relationship that would have otherwise precluded marriage in the Roman Catholic Church.

In , Queen Elizabeth died in childbirth, so King Henry had the dispensation also permit him to marry Catherine himself. After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine. Catherine's mother Isabella I of Castile had died and Catherine's sister Joanna had succeeded her; Catherine was therefore daughter of only one reigning monarch and so less desirable as a spouse for Henry VII's heir-apparent.

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somiquvevuda.gq: Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens (): Philip J. Potter: Books. Buy Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens by Philip J. Potter (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book.

The marriage did not take place during his lifetime. Otherwise, at the time of his father's arranging of the marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the future Henry VIII was too young to contract the marriage according to Canon Law, and would be ineligible until age fourteen.

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Henry made half-hearted plans to remarry and beget more heirs, but these never came to anything. In he was sufficiently interested in a potential marriage to Joan , the recently widowed Queen of Naples, that he sent ambassadors to Naples to report on the year-old's physical suitability. Henry VII was shattered by the loss of Elizabeth, and her death broke his heart. Until the death of his wife, the evidence is clear from these accounting books that Henry Tudor was a more doting father and husband than was widely known. Many of the entries show a man who loosened his purse strings generously for his wife and children, and not just on necessities: With Elizabeth's death, the possibility for such family indulgences greatly diminished.

His mother survived him, dying two months later on 29 June Henry is the first English king of whose appearance good contemporary visual records in realistic portraits exist that are relatively free of idealization. At 27, he was tall, slender, with small blue eyes, which were said to have a noticeable animation of expression, and noticeably bad teeth in a long, sallow face beneath very fair hair.

Amiable and high-spirited, Henry was friendly if dignified in manner, and it was clear to everyone that he was extremely intelligent. His biographer, Professor Chrimes, credits him — even before he had become king — with "a high degree of personal magnetism, ability to inspire confidence, and a growing reputation for shrewd decisiveness". On the debit side, he may have looked a little delicate as he suffered from poor health.

By historians emphasised Henry's wisdom in drawing lessons in statecraft from other monarchs. By the "New Monarchy" interpretation stressed the common factors that in each country led to the revival of monarchical power. This approach raised puzzling questions about similarities and differences in the development of national states. In the late 20th century a model of European state formation was prominent in which Henry less resembles Louis and Ferdinand.

Arthur Tudor , Prince of Wales , eldest son, first husband of Catherine of Aragon ; predeceased father without progeny. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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In he was sufficiently interested in a potential marriage to Joan , the recently widowed Queen of Naples, that he sent ambassadors to Naples to report on the year-old's physical suitability. Mary sent her chaplain John Feckenham to Jane, who was initially not pleased about this. Henry VII of England [58] The traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October , while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier, possibly in London, in late or in the spring of Each bio starts with the birth, so a lot of overlap. In June , Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Roman Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England , whose foundation Edward claimed to have laid.

Royal Coat of Arms. Maredudd ap Tudur 4. Margaret ferch Dafydd 2.